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Urban systems comprise the mechanisms and processes by which urban settlements are organized, function, operate, and are maintained. These systems may be conveniently grouped according to economic, social, environmental, physical, governance, technology and logistics factors.  Urban systems are inter-dependent and dynamic, and capable of responding to shock and change.   It is important that urban systems and networks are well-designed, multi-sectoral and apply integrated and multi-disciplinary approaches to support the efficient and effective functioning and operation of cities and small urban settlements.  Urban systems program activities place importance on understanding urban metabolisms,  energy, information, resource and waste flows, linkages, clusters, synergies, competitiveness and sustainability. The urban systems & networks program activities which have been undertaken by Urban Frontier team members and associates have engaged in research, studies and advice in following areas:  


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